Urban Water Research Association of Australia (UWRAA)

The UWRAA was a Division of the Water Services Association of Australia (WSAA), which was funded jointly by WSAA and the Commonwealth Government. Annual reports from 1987 show that 154 reports were produced from 1989 to 2000, until it ceased funding new projects in 1999 after the Commonwealth discontinued co-investment with water utilities.

The program had a well-defined strategic plan and an annual open call for proposals in a wide field of urban water research, including storm-water management, improved methods for pathogen detection, pipe failure prediction, assessing customer expectations and international benchmarking of economic effectiveness of utilities. (P. Dillon et al 2018)

The Catalogue below is divided into a number of sections:

Algal toxins

UWRAA 148 Characterisation and Determination of PSP Toxins in Neurotoxic Cyanobacteria and Methods for their Removal from Water 1998
UWRAA 135 Characterisation of Saxitoxins Produced by the Cyanobacterial Genus Anabaena in Australia 1998
UWRAA 134 Removal of Intact Cyanobacterial Cells by Water Treatment 1997
UWRAA 130 Evaluation of Copper Algicides for the Control of Algae and Cyanobacteria 1998
UWRAA 129 By-Products Formed in the Destruction of Algal Toxins by Oxidants such as Chlorine 1997
UWRAA 123 Determination of the Hepatotoxin Cylindrospermopsin Produced by the Cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis Raciborskii 1997
UWRAA 110 The Destruction of Cyanobacterial Peptide Toxins by Oxidants Used in Water Treatment 1996
UWRAA 108 Advance Warning of Cyanobacterial Toxicity 1996
UWRAA 105 Detection of Cyanobacterial Peptide Toxins by a Non-Radioactive Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay 1996
UWRAA 104 Epidemiological Evidence of Algal Toxins in Drinking Water and Recreational Waters 1996
UWRAA 88 Quantification of Factors Controlling the Development of Anabaena circinalis Blooms 1995
UWRAA 46 Identification of Common Noxious Cyanobacteria: Part 2 – Chroococcales and Oscillatoriales 1992
UWRAA 29 Identification of Common Noxious Cyanobacteria: Part 1 – Nostocales 1991
UWRAA 26 Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water Supplies: Analytical Techniques 1991

 Analysis of water and wastes

UWRAA 90 Remote Sensing Electronic Device for Hydrogen Sulphide in the Atmosphere: An Investigation  1995
UWRAA 55 Development of a Water Quality Analyser Suitable for Unattended Use in Rivers and Streams 1993
UWRAA 38 Polymer Based Electrode for the Selective Detection of Dichloramine 1991
UWRAA 26 Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water Supplies: Analytical Techniques 1991
UWRAA 25 Methods for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Water: A Preliminary Assessment 1991
UWRAA 11 Chromatographic Analysis of Chloramines using Electrochemical Detection 1991

 Asset management

UWRAA 146 Life Assessment of Large Cast Iron Water Mains  1998
UWRAA 145 Prediction of Pipeline Failures from Incomplete Data 1998
UWRAA 137 Asset Cost Information Services Feasibility Study 1998
UWRAA 40 Community Analysis of Household Water Pressure Satisfaction  1992
UWRAA 39 Current Cost Asset Valuation: Methodology 1992
UWRAA 33 Statistical Modelling of Water Main Failures 1991
UWRAA 17 Pipeline Assets: Life Cycle Management and Economic Life 1990

 Cryptosporidium and Giardia

UWRAA 128 Survey of Australian Waters for Cryptosporidium and Giardia  1998
UWRAA 25 Methods for Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water: A Preliminary Assessment 1991

 Drinking water distribution networks

WSAA 205 Review of Remedial Treatments for Copper Corrosion By-Product Release (Blue Water), Pitting and Cuprosolvency  2000
UWRAA 146 Life Assessment of Large Cast Iron Water Mains 1998
UWRAA 145 Prediction of Pipeline Failures from Incomplete Data 1998
UWRAA 141 Effects of Chloramination of Potable Water on the Performance of Materials 1998
UWRAA 138 Performance Requirements for Elastomeric Sealing Pipe Joints – Water Supply and Sewerage 1998
UWRAA 125 Affordable Water Supply and Sewerage for Small Communities 1999
UWRAA 114 Predicting the Failure Performance of Individual Water Mains 1996
UWRAA 112 Alternative Overseas Water Treatment and Supply Practices 1996
UWRAA 99 The Role of Biofilm and Sediment Accumulation and of Chlorine Tolerance in Bacterial Regrowth 1996
UWRAA 84 Dezincification of Brass in Potable Waters 1994
UWRAA 82 Survey of Pipeline Rehabilitation Techniques 1994
UWRAA 81 Graphical Interactive Pipe Network Analysis Program 1994
UWRAA 68 Installation Damage: Effect on Lifetimes of uPVC Pipes Subjected to Cyclic Pressure 1993
UWRAA 66 Assimilable Organic Carbon as a Measure of Bacterial Growth Potential in Water Supplies 1993
UWRAA 64 Control of Pitting Corrosion of Copper Tubes in Potable Waters 1993
UWRAA 33 Statistical Modelling of Water Main Failures 1991
UWRAA 17 Pipeline Assets: Life Cycle Management and Economic Life  1990
UWRAA 15 Chloramination of Water Supplies 1990
UWRAA 10 Taste Thresholds of Monochloramine and Chlorine in Water 1989
UWRAA 5 Leakage Management: Assessing the Effect of Pressure Reduction on Losses from Water Distribution Systems 1989
UWRAA 4 Bacterial Regrowth in Water Supplies 1989

 Drinking water quality and health

WSAA WSAAfacts ’99   1994-99 1999
WSAA WSAAfacts ’98   1993-98  1998
WSAA WSAAfacts ’97   1992-97 1997
WSAA WSAAfacts ’96   1991-96 1996
WSAA 203 Bioavailability of Aluminium in Alum-Treated Drinking Water and Food  1998
WSAA 202 Aluminium in Food and Water Supply: An Australian Perspective 1998
WSAA 201 Biological Aspects of Aluminium in Food and Water Supply 1996
UWRAA 150 Alternative Microbiological Indicators of Water Quality 1999
UWRAA 143 Formation of a Practical and Informative Management and Public Communication Tool for Information on Drinking Water Quality 1998
UWRAA 122 Products in Contact with Drinking Water: Investigations into the Metal Extraction and Microbiological Growth Tests 1997
UWRAA 115 Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products Relevant to the 1996 NHMRC/ARMCANZ Guidelines 1996
UWRAA 99 The Role of Biofilm and Sediment Accumulation and of Chlorine Tolerance in Bacterial Regrowth 1996
UWRAA 96 Development of a High Resolution Numerical Scheme Based on Quasi-Characteristics Applicable to Water Quality Modelling 1995
UWRAA 83 Bioavailability of Aluminium from Drinking Water: Co-exposure with Foods and Beverages 1994
UWRAA 66 Assimilable Organic Carbon as a Measure of Bacterial Growth Potential in Water Supplies 1993
UWRAA 15 Chloramination of Water Supplies 1990
UWRAA 10 Taste Thresholds of Monochloramine and Chlorine in Water 1989
UWRAA 4 Bacterial Regrowth in Water Supplies 1989
UWRAA 3 Taste Generation Associated with Chloramination 1989

 Drinking water treatment

WSAA 200 Review of Drinking Water Treatment Coagulants  1996
UWRAA 153 Assessment of On-Line Particle Counters for Routine Control of Microbial Pathogens at Water Treatment Plants 1999
UWRAA 125 Affordable Water Supply and Sewerage for Small Communities 1999
UWRAA 124 The Microbiological Oxidation and Removal of Manganese from Drinking Water by a Continuous Recyle Fluidized Bioreactor 1997
UWRAA 115 Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products Relevant to the 1996 NHMRC/ARMCANZ Guidelines 1996
UWRAA 112 Alternative Overseas Water Treatment and Supply Practices  1996
UWRAA 106 Water Treatment Sludge: Potential for Use as a Soil Ameliorant 1997
URWAA 98 Water Treatment Plants for Small Communities 1996
UWRAA 85 Behaviour of Aluminium During Water Treatment 1994
UWRAA 61 Chemical Regeneration of Activated Carbon: A Feasibility Study 1993
UWRAA 44 Applications of the Streaming Current Detector in Water Treatment 1992
UWRAA 42 Coagulants for Water Treatment: A Generic Guide 1992
UWRAA 41 Assessment of Coagulants for Water Treatment 1992
UWRAA 20 Chemical Regeneration of Activated Carbon: Preliminary Studies 1990

 Economic issues and pricing

WSAA WSAAfacts ’99   1994-99 1999
WSAA WSAAfacts ’98   1993-98  1998
WSAA WSAAfacts ’97   1992-97 1997
WSAA WSAAfacts ’96   1991-96 1996
Occ. Paper 1 Water Pricing and the Marginal Cost of Water  1996
UWRAA 149 Planning the Optimum Use of Funds for Capital Works: Financial Planning Model 1998
UWRAA 103 Principles for Setting Developer’s Contributions for Urban Water Infrastructure 1996
UWRAA 93 Benchmarking the Economic Performance of Australian Urban Water Authorities 1995
UWRAA 89 Urban Water, Markets and the Hilmer Reform Process 1995
UWRAA 77 A Benchmarking Methodology for the Australian Water Industry 1994
UWRAA 72 Stochastic Economic Approach to Headworks Augmentation Timing 1994
UWRAA 65 Measurement of the Total Factor Productivity in Major Water Utilities: Melbourne Case Study 1993
UWRAA 48 Allocation of Sewerage Costs to Customer Segments  1992
UWRAA 43 Optimal Prices for Urban Water: A General Equilibrium Model Applied to Melbourne 1992
UWRAA 39 Current Cost Asset Valuation: Methodology 1992
UWRAA 35 Performance Auditing in the Australian Urban Water Industry 1991
UWRAA 17 Pipeline Assets: Life Cycle Management and Economic Life 1990
UWRAA 2 A Model of Water Pricing for Melbourne, Sydney and Perth 1989

 Engineering and materials specifications

WSAA 205 Review of Remedial Treatments for Copper Corrosion By-Product Release (Blue Water), Pitting and Cuprosolvency  2000
UWRAA 141 Effects of Chloramination of Potable Water on the Performance of Materials 1998
UWRAA 138 Performance Requirements for Elastomeric Sealing Pipe Joints – Water Supply and Sewerage 1998
UWRAA 122 Products in Contact with Drinking Water: Investigations into the Metal Extraction and Microbiological Growth Tests 1997
UWRAA 84 Dezincification of Brass in Potable Waters 1994
UWRAA 64 Control of Pitting Corrosion of Copper Tubes in Potable Waters 1993

 Groundwater quality and management

UWRAA 109 Guidelines on the Quality of Stormwater and Treated Wastewater for Injection into Aquifers for Storage and Reuse  1996
UWRAA 49 Impact of Urban Lawns on Nutrient Contamination of an Unconfined Aquifer 1992
UWRAA 32 Biological Removal of Iron from Groundwater: Preliminary Studies 1991
UWRAA 12 Glass Reinforced Plastic Bore Casing for Large Diameter and Deep Bores 1990

 Instrumentation

UWRAA 153 Assessment of On-Line Particle Counters for Routine Control of Microbial Pathogens at Water Treatment Plants 1999
UWRAA 152 Assessment of the Long Term Reliability of a Water Quality Monitoring System, 1993/1996  1999
UWRAA 62 Tracing Toxic Discharges to Sewers by Analysis of Biofilms (Stage 2) 1993
UWRAA 59 Electronic Household Water Meter: Investigation into a Cost Effective Design 1993
UWRAA 55 Development of a Water Quality Analyser Suitable for Unattended Use in Rivers and Streams  1993
UWRAA 52 Automatic Meter Reading: Link between Meters and Billing Service (Combined Utilities Trial) 1993
UWRAA 50 Early Warning System for Hazardous Substances in Sewage 1992
UWRAA 47 Levelling using the Global Positioning System 1992
UWRAA 28 Electronic Meter Reading: Link between Water Meter and House 1991
UWRAA 27 Tracing Toxic Discharges to Sewers by Analysis of Biofilms 1991
UWRAA 22 Evaluation and Demonstration Facilities for Primary Sensors 1991
UWRAA 21 Management and Display of Dam Surveillance Data 1991

 Planning and research

UWRAA 154 The Welcome Reef Dam Proposal as a Case Study of Social Assessment Practice by Australian Water Utilities  2000
UWRAA 143 Formation of a Practical and Informative Management and Public Communication Tool for Information on Drinking Water Quality 1998
UWRAA 142 Stormwater Management in Australia: The Feasibility of Neighbourhood Action and Community Information 1998
UWRAA 95 Stormwater Management in Australia: Community Perceptions, Attitudes and Knowledge 1995
UWRAA 74 Decision Support System for the Water Industry: An Object Oriented Approach 1994
UWRAA 72 Stochastic Economic Approach to Headworks Augmentation Timing 1994
URWAA 58 Water in Our Environment: Education Project 1993
UWRAA 57 Identification of Critical Water Supply Assets 1993
UWRAA 51 Management Model for Trade Waste Discharges to Small Treatment Plants (including PRELIM VERSION 4.0 User’s Guide) 1993
UWRAA 40 Community Analysis of Household Water Pressure Satisfaction 1992
UWRAA 13 A Guide to Improving Communication with the Public on Water Industry Policy Issues 1990
UWRAA 6 Improving Communication with the Public on Water Industry Policy Issues 1989

 Resources, environmental water quality & ecology

WSAA Environmental Management Guidelines for the Australian Water Industry 1995
Occ. Paper 2 Systematic Environmental Management in the Water Industry: Towards Best Practice  1997
UWRAA A Guide to Wetland Invertebrates of Southwestern Australia 1997
UWRAA 152 Assessment of the Long Term Reliability of a Water Quality Monitoring System, 1993/1996 1999
UWRAA 142 Stormwater Management in Australia: The Feasibility of Neighbourhood Action and Community Information  1998
UWRAA 139 Sediment, Nutrient and Heavy Metal Characteristics of Urban Stormwater Runoff 1999
UWRAA 131 Numerical Modelling of Extreme Precipitation Events 1997
UWRAA 121 Impact on Water Quality of Gross Pollutants 1997
UWRAA 109 Guidelines on the Quality of Stormwater and Treated Wastewater for Injection into Aquifers for Storage and Reuse 1996
UWRAA 100 Phosphorus in Detergents: Its Contribution to Eutrophication in Australian Inland Waters 1995
UWRAA 87 Benchmarking and Best Practice for Urban Waterway Management 1995
UWRAA 78 Water Quality Effects of Aeration/Destratification at Harding Reservoir, W.A. 1994
UWRAA 69 Safety Aspects of the Design of Roadways as Floodways 1993
UWRAA 45 Sydney Coastal Stormwater Study 1992
UWRAA 34 Stratification, Mixing and Water Quality in Darwin Water Supply Reservoirs 1991
UWRAA 24 Modelling Optimum Conditions for Reservoir Destratification Using Mechanical Mixers 1991
UWRAA 23 Modelling and Design of Reservoir Aeration Destratification Systems 1991
UWRAA 16 The 1988 Australian Winter Storms Experiment: Report on Aircraft Observations 1990
UWRAA 9 Review of Artificial Destratification of Water Storages in Australia 1989

 Sewerage, surface & coastal water management

WSAA 204 Distinguishing Sources of Faecal Pollution in Australian Inland and Coastal Waters using Sterol Biomarkers and Microbial Faecal Indicators 1998
UWRAA 140 The Effects of Sewage Discharges on the Ecological Processes involving Marine Flora in Southern Australian Waters 1998
UWRAA 126 Development of a Bioindicator to Measure In-stream Effects of Wastewater Overflows 1997
UWRAA 54 Tracer Studies Using Bacteriophage to Predict the fate of Viruses in the Marine Community: Preliminary Assessments 1993

 Wastewater treatment, sludge & land management

Hydrogen Sulphide Control Manual: Septicity, Corrosion and Odour Control in Sewerage Systems 1989
UWRAA 151 Application of Duckweed in Treating Municipal Wastewater – Trials at Inverell STW 1999
UWRAA 147 Enhancement of Nitrification/Denitrification in Lagoons using Algal Biofilms 1999
UWRAA 144 Microbial Health Hazards Associated with Effluent Reuse 1998
UWRAA 136 Integration of Odour Emission Measurements from Area Sources with Dispersion Modelling Analysis of Environmental Impacts 1999
UWRAA 133 Assessments of Stormflows in Sewerage Systems 1997
UWRAA 132 Land Disposal of Wastewater 1997
UWRAA 127 Aerobic Stabilisation of Waste Activated Sludges 1998
UWRAA 125 Affordable Water Supply and Sewerage for Small Communities 1999
UWRAA 120 New Concepts in Sludge Dewatering 1997
UWRAA 113 Ammonia Removal from Sirofloc® STP Treated Sewage using Australian Natural Zeolite 1996
UWRAA 111 Application of Duckweed in Treating Municipal Wastewater 1995
UWRAA 102 The Effect of Irrigation on Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus) Water Uptake 1995
UWRAA 101 Disinfection of Wastewater Effluent: A Review of Current Techniques 1996
UWRAA 97 Landfarming Hydrocarbon Wastes 1996
UWRAA 94 Biological Nutrient Removal Plants: Review of Full-Scale Operation 1995
UWRAA 92 Die-off of Human Pathogens in Stored Wastewater Sludge and Sludge Applied to Land 1995
UWRAA 79 Heavy Metals and Organics in Domestic Wastewater 1994
UWRAA 76 Utilisation of Sewage Sludge for Minesite Rehabilitation: Rix’s Creek Mine Trial 1994
UWRAA 75 Chemical Characterisation and Olfactometric Measurement of Odours from Sewage Treatment Process Units 1994
UWRAA 71 Treatment of Electoplating Wastes using New Generation Membrane Technology 1994
UWRAA 70 Regional Development Implications of Wastewater Reuse: Werribee Case Study 1993
UWRAA 63 Production of Jerusalem Artichoke Hybrids under Irrigation using Urban Wastewater 1993
UWRAA 62 Tracing Toxic Discharges to Sewers by Analysis of Biofilms (Stage 2) 1993
UWRAA 56 Enhancement of Nitrification in Wastewater Lagoons 1993
UWRAA 53 Prediction of Perceived Odour Strength and Type from Composition of Sewage Odour Mixtures 1993
UWRAA 51 Management Model for Trade Waste Discharges to Small Treatment Plants (including PRELIM VERSION 4.0 Users Guide) 1993
UWRAA 50 Early Warning System for Hazardous Substances in Sewage 1992
UWRAA 37 Magnetite and Microwaves in Sewage Effluent Treatment 1991
UWRAA 36 Microbiological Studies on Enhanced Removal of Phosphates from Sewage 1991
UWRAA 27 Tracing Toxic Discharges to Sewers by Analysis of Biofilms 1991
UWRAA 19 PRELIM User’s Guide (Amended): Australian Version 1990
UWRAA 18 Development of Empirical Model for Trade Waste Discharges to Small Treatment Plants 1990
UWRAA 14 Fouling and Cleaning of Fine Bubble Ceramic Dome Diffusers 1990
UWRAA 8 Sewage Fermentation Units to Increase Degradable COD Fraction 1989
UWRAA 1 Trickling Filters – Solids Contact Process: Pilot Plant Studies 1889

 Water Conservation, Demand Management & Water Usage

WSAA WSAAfacts ’99   1994-99 1999
WSAA WSAAfacts ’98   1993-98  1998
WSAA WSAAfacts ’97   1992-97 1997
WSAA WSAAfacts ’96   1991-96 1996
UWRAA 119 Critical Evaluation of Domestic Irrigation Equipment 1996
UWRAA 118 An Evaluation of an Integrated Urban Water Management System: Palmyra Case Study 1997
UWRAA 117 Water Sensitive Urban Design: A Tool for Urban Integrated Catchment Management – A Case Study of Bayswater 1997
UWRAA 116 Sustainable Urban Water Systems: Issues and Opportunities 1997
UWRAA 107 Model Guidelines for Domestic Greywater Reuse for Australia 1996
UWRAA 91 Simultaneous Peak Flows for Medium Density Residential Areas 1995
WSAA 86 Wise Water Management – A Demand Management Manual 1998
UWRAA 80 Effluent Reuse: Land and Wet Weather Storage Requirements 1994
UWRAA 73 Domestic Greywater Reuse: Overseas Practice and its Applicability to Australia 1994
UWRAA 70 Regional Development Implications of Wastewater Reuse: Werribee Case Study 1993
UWRAA 67 Simultaneous Peak Water Demands in Residential Areas 1993
UWRAA 63 Production of Jerusalem Artichoke Hybrids under Irrigation using Urban Wastewater 1993
UWRAA 60 Domestic Greywater Reuse: Preliminary Evaluation 1993
UWRAA 40 Community Analysis of Household Water Pressure Satisfaction 1992
UWRAA 31 Effects of Controls on Water Consumption 1991
UWRAA 30 Forecasting Water Demand Using Weather Data 1991
UWRAA 7 Water Use Efficiency of Domestic Appliances 1989