Affordable Water Supply and Sewerage for Small Communities
This report was produced for the Urban Water Research Association of Australia, a now discontinued research program.
Report No UWRAA 146
The purpose of the handbook is to reach a wide audience including representatives and members of small communities to communicate how lower cost options can meet the community’s needs and means for water supply and sewerage services. Such options incorporate appropriate reductions to levels of service and design standards which can reduce the costs by up to 50% of the cost of systems designed to conventional standards.
The handbook focuses on the specific requirements of affordable water supply and sewerage systems to meet the needs of small communities and supplements current manuals and procedures. Simple step by step methods allow selection of appropriate levels of service and design standards to reduce costs and provide a service where it may not otherwise be possible to do.
The handbook deals with:
- Population and development Projections
- Water Supply Investigation using four main options:
1. Reticulated Potable Supply
2. Constant flow Reticulated Supply
3. Non-Potable Reticulated Supply withpotable supply from individual rainwater tanks
4. Dual Reticulated Supply with separate potable and non-potable reticulation
- Sewerage Investigation of lower cost options including:
– Modified Conventional Sewerage with lift pumping
– Vacuum Sewerage
– Grinder Pumps
– Common Effluent Drainage
– Variable Grade Sewerage
– Septic Tank Effluent Pumping
– Modified drainage
– Septic tanks with subsurface irrigation
The selection and implementation of the preferred system is discussed. Guidelines are provided on operation, maintenance and management of the systems and for key components.